This post was written by Melanie Panitch. She is a former director of the School of Disability Studies and is currently holds the John C. Eaton Chair in Social Innovation and Entrepreneurship.
Ten years ago, in 2007, while Director of DST, I signed an affidavit in a Charter Challenge (under Section 15 and the Equality clause of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms). See Carol Goar article from the Toronto Star.
The case itself addressed the differential and discriminatory impact of the Canada Student Loan Program, which we know as OSAP (Ontario Student Assistance Program ) on students with disabilities. The argument went as follows: Disabled students take longer to complete degrees, hence incur more debt than non-disabled students to get the same degree. This serves as a deterrent to disabled students from attending post-secondary education worried by a high debt load and how to pay it off afterwards given the uncertainty of finding work, yet, without degrees are in a further disadvantageous position in the job markets.
The wheels of justice are slow, and two weeks ago I was advised by the applicant’s lawyer, I would be cross-examined on my affidavit. In preparing for this cross examination which involved updating my knowledge about loans and grants – I found our many revealing things in support of the discriminatory impact of OSAP on disabled students. Alas I was not given the opportunity to “make the speech” I wanted at the hearing itself, but I can share in this blog some of what I learned.
The first big decision is whether to disclose disability. Registering with the student accommodation and support office and if eligible for OSAP (even for only $1.00) taps into some non repayable grants: Bursary program for up to $10,000 for learning supports (eg computer, accessible technology). Is it high enough for account for the wide range of supports required to succeed? There is also an annual $2000 grant for students identified with a permanent disability.
40% course load counts as Full Time status. But FT status at the University doesn’t translate to FT status for example Awards or bursaries that assist financially nor does it have the same meaning with ODSP which can be confusing. A 40% load also means less funding. There can be long wait times before the loans are approved, often held up until the required assessments arrive, and given wait time for appointments students may end up having to pay out of pocket for eg, first or last months’ rent, course materials etc.
Managing OSAP can be like having a full time career because there is a need for constant reporting. If you change a course load, add a course, withdraw from a course, do badly in a course, need some time away for eg episodic disability, OSAP monitors closely and adds or subtracts payment. A low grade in a course that indicates a lack of progress or success according to OSAP triggers a requirement for a letter and explanation. If that happens twice, you can’t take any more courses until you repay. Condensed courses, intensive courses are also confusing for OSAP. Lack of flexibility – a disability keystone – is an issue. Having to think about reporting at a time when health or disability related concerns are predominant is tricky to say the least yet missing the deadlines has an impact on loans and interest on loans.
There is an assumption of disability as monolithic – that disability is stable and physical and visible.
Students with disabilities who are not on OSAP are not eligible for work-study programs thus denying opportunities for acquiring work-related skills and experience to boost resumes.
A positive step has been instituted by charging tuition by course rather than by semester. However for student with disabilities taking more years to finish their studies means extra costs in a number of ways: budgeting for accommodation, travel and food over a longer period, a delayed period before entering the work force; some student ancillary fees are pro-rated though others continue to be charged.
Perhaps this can be the start of a conversation on how the impact of the student loan program has affected students and their studies. It is worth noting that the Ontario government intends to roll out a new financial aid program. A recent Globe and Mail article (Nov 29, 2016) reported it was redesigning the current system to “scrap a complicated package of grants and loans and tax credits and replace it with a singled program, the Ontario Student Grant…” Stay alert!
Hi, Everyone! I am Tobin LeBlanc Haley, the new Ethel Louise Armstrong Post-Doctoral Fellow in the School of Disability Studies. I am following in the footsteps of Dr. Kirsty Liddiard and Dr. Eliza Chandler. I have much to live up to!
I am a Mad-identified, white, cis-gender, normatively physically-abled woman. I came to Toronto from Fredericton, New Brunswick to do my doctorate in Political Science at York University and decided to stay. My interest in disability studies comes from my experiences and the lack attention to mental health care, Mad Studies, and the experiences of consumers/survivors/ex-patient/Mad folk within the field of critical political economy. Most of my research, therefore, is about mental health, specifically the political economy of mental health policy and the implications for people labelled mentally ill. My doctoral research critically assesses Ontario’s public mental health care system, retelling the history of psychiatric deinstitutionalization from a political economy perspective and interrogating the landscape of mental health care services in the province today during the period of transinstitutionalization.
As a post-doctoral fellow, I am focusing on my home province, which is often neglected in critical scholarship. Here are some facts about psychiatric services in New Brunswick that might interest you.
The New Brunswick Lunatic Asylum opened in 1848 in Saint John, New Brunswick (St.-Amand & LeBlanc, 2013). This asylum is often referred to as Canada’s first asylum or as one of the “first permanent ‘lunatic asylums’ in [British North America]” (Moran, n.d, n.p.).
New Brunswick was also home to the Restigouche Hospital which opened approximately 100 years after the asylum in Saint John (Vitalite: Health Network, n.d., n.p.).
Today there is a new Restigouche Hospital, a 140-bed psychiatric hospital in Campbellton, NB (Vitalite: Health Network, n.d., n.p.).
There is also a 50-bed psychiatric facility in Saint John (Horizon, Health Network, n.d., n.p.).
Psychiatric deinstitutionalization was not initiated in the province until the mid-to-late 1980s, well after many other provinces in Canada and during earlier expressions of neoliberalism (Government of New Brunswick. The Action Plan for Mental Health Care in New Brunswick 2011-2018, n.p.).
The mid-1980s was a unique time in New Brunswick politics. From 1987-1991, there was no real opposition in the New Brunswick Legislature as the Liberal Party, under the leadership of Frank McKenna, won all the seats (Desserud, 2015).
The Liberals remained in power until 1999, with McKenna as Premier until 1997.
McKenna implemented an aggressive neoliberal policy program (Desserud, 2015).
For my post-doctoral research project, I will be mapping the history of psychiatric deinstitutionalization in New Brunswick, focusing in particular on whether prevailing economic ideology played a role in the decision to implement deinstitutionalization in the 1980s, the form this process took in the province and the implications for ex-patients.
Processes of deinstitutionalization, while undoubtedly essential for the well-being of anyone who experiences confinement, have long-lasting impacts on where and how ex-patients live and how governments and the public frame the needs and entitlements of these groups. To date, these processes in New Brunswick have not been analyzed. I cannot wait to get into the archives, start talking to people and piece together the place-specific social, political and economic factors that led to psychiatric deinstitutionalization in the province, the immediate implications for ex-patients and the on-going implications for the c/s/x/m community today. I also hope to do some comparative work around de/transinstitutionalization across Deaf/dis/Abled/Mad communities.
So far I have only had the chance to meet a few students, but I am deeply impressed with the creativity and engagement in the DST community. I love all things related to intersectional feminism, archival research, radical social change and, of course, Dis and Mad Studies. Please feel free to stop by my office anytime or email me at email@example.com.
Desserud, Don. (2015). The Political Economy of New Brunswick. In B. Evans and C. Smith (Eds.) Transforming provincial politics: The political economy of Canada’s provinces and territories in the neoliberal era (pp. 110-134). University of Toronto Press.
St.-Amand, N. and LeBlanc, E. (2013). Women in 19th Century Asylums. In B. LeFrancois, R. Menzies, & G. Reaume (Eds.), Mad matters: A critical reader in Canadian mad studies (pp. 38-48). Toronto: Canadian Scholars Inc. Press.
This post was written by recent graduate, Carolyn Lee-Jones.
I always find the hardest part of any task is the beginning. Taking that awkward first step or action needed to propel me forward always brings with it a terrifying sense of anxiety. Today, I am here to talk about presenting my DST 99 project, Walking with Strangers:Mapping experiences of madness and space, to diverse audiences. But at the moment all I see is a sea of unfamiliar faces, strangers really. I close my eyes, take a deep breath and start walking…
Walking with Strangersemerged to make sense of a troubling situation involving someone I had been in a care relationship with experienced escalating mental health crises. The degree of stigma, lack of accommodations and responses to her distress was appalling. Witnessing these events led me to reflect on my own experiences of distress and struggles with a Mad identity. Guided by a Mad Studies framework, Walking with Stranger is an ethnographic study exploring how Mad People experience and negotiate social and geographical spaces in everyday life. Or more simply, discovering how Mad People are living in space. My research involved working with four Mad identified participants. Each produced 24-hour narrative diaries focussing on ‘thick description’ and participated in semi formal interviews. Most importantly to my research, I also went on go ‘go alongs’ where I actually walked with participants as they went about their regular routines and locales to get a sense of how they interact with their environments.
When I initially developed Walking with Strangers I didn’t give much thought about how I might have to alter my project to reach audiences from different backgrounds. Most recently I was challenged with taking the presentation I prepared for the Canadian Disability Studies Association (CDSA 2016) conference and turning it into something I could co-present with Dr. Kathryn Church to a Media Production class at Ryerson. Being immersed in Disability Studies, I had forgotten how foreign the concepts had been when I was first introduced to them. Presenting to the Media Production students, mental health as illness and the more common medical, recovery based models- these were familiar to the students. Mad as an identity and pride, never mind an entire field of study was far more difficult to grasp. Nevertheless, I did my best to present the bare bones of my project and its relationship to Mad Studies. By focusing on how I enacted ethnography in my project and what ethnographic research looked like on the ground level, I wanted to emphasise how ethnography is about living engagement. It’s awkwardness as well as connection and everything else in between still counts as data.
Based on the Q & A session which followed my presentation, the response to my project seemed mostly positive. The students had interesting questions about Disability and Mad Studies, finding participants and challenges working with mad participants. Some of the students shared discomfort with this kind of research which seemed only natural. I had similar reservations at first but I found that doing ethnography included my learning to face my discomfort and accept that ethnography is not necessarily a linear approach to research. Through ethnographic research I found that having to adjust, adjust, adjust was just all part of the process. In doing so, ethnography showed me alternative way of knowing and seeing the world by immersing myself in my participant’s experiences of their everyday spatiality’s. By presenting to the students I could show them that mad people can be researchers as well as participants. Maybe, even changing some of the student’s previous notions about madness. As a Mad researcher, I feel I was in a unique position both personally and academically to work from the inside out to explore complicated questions about everyday spatiality’s, madness and geography. My work was about people living in space and presenting to the Media Production students gave me another opportunity to show the other, every day side of madness. Reflecting, learning to present across diverse groups, I better understand the importance of being able to make my work accessible and share it with wider audiences to change how people think about mad people and experiences. Thanks for walking with me!
This post was written by Associate Professor, Eliza Chandler.
Beginning in January, Dr. Carla Rice and myself will be co-directing a seven year SSHRC-funded Partnership Grant called Bodies in Translation: Activist Art, Technology, and Access to Life. Activist art, as it is defined in this grant, is Deaf, disability, and Mad art, fat art, art made by aging/aged people, and Indigenous art produced by Ontario-based artists. This grant will animate the assertion that when non-normative artists have access to creating and exhibiting art, and when we all have access to publically engaging with it, that differently embodied and marginalized people achieve greater possibilities for living a fulfilled life and expanded recognition of having liveable futures. And in a culture in which D/deaf people, disabled people, Mad people, fat/differently-sized people, aging/aged people, and Indigenous people are recognized as living unliveable and undesirable lives, we recognize that the project of claiming vitality through activist art is nothing short of urgent.
Bodies in Translation brings together 40 university and community-based partners from across Canada and the UK. Tangled Art + Disability, the main community partner, will be the site of much of the grant’s artistic activity. We aim to help cultivate activist art and mobilize its social justice capacity through five research streams which will: 1) Create an open-access, accessible, and ever-expanding archive of activist art in Ontario; 2) Innovate new ways for technology to help create, exhibit, archive and experience art; 3) Facilitate the creation and exhibition of activist art; 4) Consider how activist art contributes to social justice by promoting new understandings of embodied differences, both through art and as artists; and 5) Develop free and accessible secondary and post-secondary curriculum around activist art which can be used within equity and social justice pedagogy.
The main research outputs of this grant will be an activist art archive co-hosted by the Canadian Journal of Disability Studies; the development of a standard and policy for making the arts accessible; activist art programming, performances, and exhibitions; symposiums, conferences, workshops, and publications about activist art; and a web-based knowledge platform wherein educators can freely access curriculum and curriculum development tools for teaching about social justice through activist art.
What this means for the Ryerson community:
As one of the two main university partners on this grant, the School of Disability Studies will be abuzz with research and artistic activity for the next seven years. The School will host many research symposiums— the first of which, the Aging/Disability Symposium will be held February 16th and 17th, 2017 and stay tuned for the second Cripping the Arts symposium happening in 2018. The School will also be the site of the grants Access the Arts Lab, a lab complete with 3D printers, iPads, video editing software, and new technology as it gets developed over the life of the grant that will help make art-making more accessible. This lab is free to use for students, artists, and community members, so feel free to pop by when the lab is set up next winter. The grant will also create a number of research assistantship positions for students, artists, and community members. If you are interested in one of these positions, please get in touch with me.
If you want to hear more about this grant or would like to get involved, please get in touch with me at any time: firstname.lastname@example.org, 416-979-5000 ext. 6200, office #523.
Looking forward to an exciting next seven years cultivating activist art at the School of Disability Studies!
This post was written by current student Robin Kellner.
Almost daily, my clients and I are stopped by curiouspasser-by’s who have numerous questions and who feel entitled to our personal information.
I understand that we stand out. It’s not common to see two people side by side, one telling the other about every visual and auditory stimulus in the mall, doctor’s office, or restaurant. But that is how some people who are deafblind live their lives, with someone travelling beside them providing access to everything there is to see and hear in the environment around them.
Most commonly, I am asked if my client is my parent.
A few weeks ago, my client was getting her banking done when the teller stops to ask “Are you her daughter?” When I passed the question along to my client, she snapped “No! She’s an intervenor.”
We both sighed as we left the bank, “It’s annoying. I’m not old enough to be your mother.” It’s true, not even by a long shot.
Curiosity is human nature, but I often wonder, if disability were to be removed from the situation, would people still feel inclined to ask such questions? I would never pull up a chair at a café and ask the two people sitting at the table how they know each other. By Torontonian standards, that would be socially inappropriate – not to mention that I do not give a crap how they know each other.
It may not sound horrible to be approached with questions, but could you imagine if it happened almost every day? Such inquiries rarely turn into thoughtful conversations promote awareness of deafblindness – they are flat out insulting.
The interview does not often end with me being asked if I am my client’s offspring. Again and again, we hear “Can she see?” or “What’s wrong with him?”
These quandaries are also always directed at me implying that the person views my client as invisible and unable to answer a question.
I am not advocating for a society of people who never talk to one another and ask each other questions, but I encourage people to think about their questions before asking them. Speak to the person you are curious about directly, regardless of their mode of communication, language, vision, or hearing, and ask yourself: Why am I asking the question? Without the presence of visible disability, would I still feel the need to ask the question at all?
On a recent shift at the dentist, the receptionist asked if my client was my father. When I relayed the answer along to my client – who took the time to explain the role of an intervenor – the response was: “so like your daughter.”
We were speechless – but offered polite chuckles as we walked out using sighted guide. Having never been in that situation with this particular person, once we got outside, I asked him how he felt about the question. His response gave me a new perspective to the scenario – he said that he should have asked the receptionist if the dentist was her mother.
It occurred to me that such questions are not only disrespectful to the person with the embodied difference; they are also patronizing to the intervenor and diminish our roles as professionals.
The receptionist at the dental office is a skilled professional who plays an essential role in managing the office and ensuring the quality of the patients’ experience. Intervenors are trained professionals who provide visual and auditory information to people who are deafblind, and are trained in various modes of communication, orientation and mobility, and much more. Sure, it could happen that a dentist could hire their child to work in their office, and a family member could be put in the position of intervenor if there is a need. But would you ever feel the need to ask the receptionist at a dental office how they are related to their employer? I would guess the answer to that question is likely no.
Why then, do people feel it is their right to ask me how I am related to the person beside me who is holding my arm, a white cane, or the harness of a guide dog? Is it because they are perceived to have a disability?
In reality, I could be their daughter, cousin, or I could even be their lover – but is it really any of your business?
This post was written by student Sharon Clegg-Lintner and Micki McIntrye.
“Well, Micki. What do you think??”
“That would be all right with me I guess. If it means a couple of extra dollars a month for me to spend, that would be okay.”
And that’s how it all started; the second half of taking a stand and pursuing a closure for all the lost opportunities in life and one that makes her feel more credible and dignified as a human being. Not that she ever discussed those twenty years of pain, abuse and hardship while living in four of Ontario’s Provincial Institutions.
Micki, whose birth name is Marlene McIntyre, had to re-live all those painful memories three years ago as we spent nearly seven hours with me and her Adult Protective Service Worker completing the most intimate details of her years of mental, physical and emotional abuse. She spoke of other horrors that had occurred to people she knew and lived with, surprised at herself for even remembering some of their names.
“You didn’t speak of those things when staff were around and you couldn’t help even if you wanted to. I did a couple of times and got smacked and locked in a room for it. Some people died, Sharon, and we didn’t know where their bodies went.”
I’m sitting here with Micki right now so she can be part of this submission, because that’s how it’s always been between her and I since we met. We share. I was redneck nineteen year old who got a summer job at the Ontario Hospital for Women in Cobourg. (Later known as D’Arcy Place) That was 1972. And we’ve been friends ever since. There are too many stories to elaborate on since then, but the most important aspect of our relationship was how hers, and others, humbled me into choosing my career path. She became family and the both of us struggled through many obstacles so she could obtain her freedom. I took on Community and Social Services in the late 70’s to get her released into the community of Barrie and she has lived a life to establish herself as a citizen there, not without consequences by any means, but as someone who always had a heart of gold, of which she gave while others took. But I was always there as her “protector”, providing choices and alternatives.
She eventually met and decided to live with her partner, Bob, and that was nearly over thirty-five years ago. She is quite emphatic to this day that she won’t share Bob with me! “You’re my sister, and he can’t come to our house to stay when I come home!” Even when Micki got really ill two years ago and I learned that her one leg had gotten so badly infected, she was hospitalized, she told me she didn’t want to worry me and that she had tried her best to do things on her own. That cost her the amputation of her leg, a decision she made by herself after we had tried for four months to save it. South Lake Regional Hospital in Newmarket sure got to know the both of us during those months, after they originally wanted to discharge her back to her apartment that was consumed with bed bugs! It wasn’t long before the medical professionals discovered that we were a team not to be pushed around because of policies!! We’ve come even a longer way since then. I was able to secure a place at a retirement home the next year for both of them and took on officials in Barrie. It hasn’t been a smooth road since then making sure she was getting the correct medical attention and prevention for her other leg. We learned of the first collective Class Action Lawsuit against the Province of Ontario and I made sure her name was on the list. The law firm of Koskie Minsky in Toronto were absolutely wonderful! Micki and I had to originally travel to Toronto for depositions, affidavits, motions and intimidating consultations with Ministry people. But Micki charmed them all! Her wit, humour and sincerity won them over. Plus, she absolutely looked forward to staying in the big hotels!
Micki received a substantial financial gift as a result of the first lawsuit. We were able to obtain a brand new electric wheelchair for her and as of last October, she and Bob have relocated to a geared-to-rent disabled unit apartment in Barrie. They had the most wonderful Christmas last year, with a proper Christmas tree, decorations and gifts. Although there have been some serious medical concerns with the both of them this last year, they are much happier.
Our final chapter enlisted by Koskie Minsky this past year, was Micki taking on the responsibility of being named as applicant for a second class action lawsuit, again against the Province of Ontario, for any and all survivors of the smaller provincial institutions before they were closed. We spearheaded this motion because Micki wanted to ensure that EVERYONE who was still alive and had gone through horrific experiences were also entitled to a better life. The day she had to appear in court this past April, she manoeuvred her wheelchair up next to the lawyer’s benches and got to speak to the Judge and let him know how grateful she felt and other survivors in the courtroom clapped when she did so.
Micki’s life long wishes were to see Alice Cooper, which we have done twice now at Casino Rama and she wants to go to Santa’s Village this summer, which we are planning. Micki comes home here to my farm more often now, and it is our hope that with continuing medical assistance, we can get her one leg stable enough to warrant a prosthesis, because that’s Micki — she never wants to give up on any possibilities in her life and don’t anyone tell her she can’t do something!
Playgrounds provide opportunities for children to play in a diverse, safe environment along with allowing them to grow to create and pretend while interacting with their peers. Playgrounds are meant to provide children an exciting, diverse environment to play. Authors; Yantz, Young, & Mckeever (2010) maintain “by providing children the opportunity to play together is an important step in redressing discrimination, marginalization, and exclusion, inclusive play spaces help to promote and create an inclusive community” (pg.76). The purpose and goal of my community project are to create an accessible play environment that meets the needs both of the children disabilities who attend the school and everyone within the community. My paper focused my narrative, of my journeys as I worked on two projects one being changing the existing playground in making it accessible to everyone within the community. The second project is participating and working with school committees and stakeholders in designing and creating an accessible outdoor play space in the school’s courtyard. My motivation: As an Educational Assistant I am required to supervise the students I support outside during their morning, lunch and afternoon recesses. However during this time, I often see the students isolated playing on their devices because there is no equipment or other students to play and or socialize with. The students sit in their wheelchairs alone watching the other children play soccer on a field that is not accessible or safe for them to maneuver their wheelchairs, children building castles, holes, imagining that they are going to China or in the sandbox that has borders that allow able-bodied children in and children in wheelchairs out. I see children playing on the playscapes that has slides and or fireman poles, but no ramps for children in wheelchairs and opportunities to explore, imagine or play.
Children with disabilities are often marginalized and excluded on school playgrounds often because their abilities are unappreciated. I believe one of the effective ways to encourage such a change is to provide opportunities for them to self-advocate and be included in the decision-making process by providing the tools and resources necessary to express their wants and needs.
I held a learning circle including the children I support to provide them a means to express what they felt about the school playground. The students expressed they felt isolated, frustrated, mad, unvalued and sad. Expressed the basketball nets were too high and were afraid of getting hit in the head by a ball. They wanted to play in the sand with their peers, however because the sandbox is sunken in the ground, has high borders, and not entirely accessible, the students with physical disabilities are unable to gain access to the sandbox. In other instances, students were unsure of what to do when they wanted to play soccer because they felt they couldn’t ask their friends to stay with them to play. They didn’t want to prevent their peers from doing things they were able to do such as playing in the sandbox, practicing gymnastics on the grass or playing on the playscape. It also assisted in deciding what equipment the children felt was missing from the playground. The students shared that the most accessible equipment such as an elevated sand table and adjustable basketball net to accommodate their wheelchairs would be beneficial. The students expressed they felt comfortable playing with other students in the Intensive Support Program because they didn’t feel they would be judged. They didn’t want to leave other students alone without anyone to play with and because sometimes other students didn’t understand them or have the patience to wait for them to respond whether it is throwing the ball or responding to a question. I have also found that because of differing maturity levels from that of their grade peers they do not have much in common. For instance; one student is 14 years old, and her favourite television shows are not age or maturity appropriate for younger children. The other children watch television shows that contain content that some other students do not understand or watch. Having an opportunity to engage in a circle dialogue with the students, allowed me to hear the accounts first- the hand of the students’ experiences firsthand. It also allowed the students to express their feelings and suggestions regarding what they want and need to be changed, so they feel more comfortable and inclusive with their peers. How those changes and express can be included in the design stage of the Courtyard Revitalization Project is vital and allowed the student an opportunity for them to feel comfortable in a situation and which other students may have felt the same way.
I did not include children in the photographs that illustrate barriers children with disabilities face on the playgrounds. I wanted the main focus to be on the barrier not on the child.
I was able to gain funding from the parent council and the principal to purchase an elevated sand table, as well as an adjustable basketball goal. It has been very exciting for both the students and I; the elevated sand table is in the process of being installed. The children love playing with the adjustable basketball goal. The students with the class I support are beginning to enjoy the school playground and are beginning to feel included within the of the school community. Currently, I am still an active member of the in the school Playground Revitalization Project steering committee. The revitalization project is going well. We have created our designs and are in the process of working with the board in finalizing our design and develop strategies on how to gain extra funding. Although this began as my DST 99 final project, I am in the long haul!!
I wanted to open up a discourse on the representation of special need students in South Korean schools. As a foreign language teacher, I noticed in the professional trainings and interactions with my colleagues, little was mentioned to me about working in our English classrooms with special needs. The absence of any discussion about special needs students made me wonder why.
Specifically, the English Program in Korea (E.P.I.K) affiliated with Korea Ministry of Education hires native English speakers to develop English speaking abilities and the cultural exchange between Korea and abroad. However, there is no mention of integrating students with special needs into the English classroom under the teaching guidelines section on their website.
Furthermore, as I continued to build connections with other English teachers, I heard the common theme of special education being an ambiguous, obscure subject. In particular, we were not all on the same page in our expectations for inclusive teaching practice, creating modified lesson plans, and using accommodations.
I had to find out more.
(“It is a form of qualitative research that involves the gathering of narratives—written, oral, visual—focusing on the meanings that people ascribe to their experiences, seeking to provide “insight that (befits) the complexity of human lives” (JOSSELSON, 2006, p.4).)
One sunny day in France, I sent out surveys to seven foreign language teachers in South Korea. I wanted to gather some experiences and frame this information in a narrative inquiry paradigm.
Three Men and Four Women aged 23-45, were interviewed about their knowledge of special education in their workplace setting in schools. These experiences from teachers are from diversified backgrounds who have been teaching in Korea from a span of one year to eight years. Most importantly, all teachers that participated in this survey are working within various cohorts of classrooms: private and public, and rural and urban settings across South Korea.
Let’s hear what they had to say.
What About Special Needs Students?
I was wondering about your opinion as a school teacher in South Korea. In your school, what learning structures are put in place for students with special needs: including behavioural, learning, or physical challenges? How are these children being integrated into English classes academically and socially?
Are they equally participating in the classroom?
Do teachers or parents show shame or pity in discussing children with special needs?
Any other thoughts?
Meet the Teachers
Keith – 8 years working as a foreign language teacher across South Korea, currently in a private academy in metropolitan city, Seoul
“I have seen and also been told how kids with special needs are treated in the classroom. They are usually included in the classroom with kids their age, but they do not always get the attention or help they deserve.
I feel that teachers in the classroom are not given the tools to assist these special students to succeed and flourish. Classroom teachers have deadlines to meet and cannot provide what these students need. Therefore, they become sort of babysitters for these students and sometimes have other students looking after them when they (teachers) are occupied.
In my years of teaching in Korea, I have had these types of students in my classrooms and have heard horror stories about how they lived at home and see their behaviour at school. But, I feel that when they come to school it is kind of a safe haven for them and makes them feel like a normal child when they mix with other kids. It probably takes them away from what negativity they encounter at home (physical, and/or verbal, neglect, malnourished, and so forth).”
“In regards, to children with special needs they are not challenged at all in my English classroom to learn. They are actually ignored and I am encouraged to ignore them by my Korean co-teacher. I was told to focus on the ‘normal’ children because they are seen as more capable of learning. The are also bullied in the classroom and the Korean co-teacher ignores the bullying.
I’ve never personally interacted with a parent of a student with a disability, but my Korean co-teacher showed pity, not shame. As time progressed I showed these students more attention and began to change my lessons and teach them separately when I got the chance; as well as, pairing them with a stronger student in the classroom who can translate or help them personally as the lessons progressed. I also gave them different work tailored to their learning needs to better enhance their learning as well as their understanding of English.
There’s my experience in a nutshell!”
“I am sorry but I don’t have any input. I have never come across any students with special needs.”
“I have special needs in all three of my schools. In middle and high school, they are treated wonderfully. They have a teacher who is trained for special needs and their own fully decked out rooms. They do most of classes with the other students and then have review classes. Even things like cooking and basic finance, general life skill classes too.
I see that the other students are really nice to them in class, no one is rude or talking down to them. But, who knows what happens outside of class though but to me everyone gets along. Teachers are all really nice to them although the special needs students are super quiet in class, not sure if it is because they or shy or what? Even when I put in extra effort to encourage them to participate they are usually very low level or shy about their skills.
There was one student in my middle school who had a hard time speaking Korean which was affecting all of her classes obviously since teachers could barely understand her. The school paid for a speech specialist for a few months and her speaking ability in Korean and English is ten times better now. It must have been expensive to have a specialist come in for one student but they took great care of her and she is much happier and well behaved now.
In my elementary school there is no special needs teacher. My elementary school only has about 50 students and maybe 2 or 3 special needs kids so they are just in class like everyone else. This means they are way behind and the teachers just don’t have enough time to teach the class and give the time to the students to keep up. The teachers are usually frustrated with the students because they get bored and have behaviour problems.
Overall, I am really happy with the middle and high school treatment and set up. But kind of disappointed with the elementary support. I know the school is on a small budget and likely can’t afford a teacher and room for 2 or 3 students. I would like to see what it is like at a larger elementary school with more funds.”
“Well, I don’t know much, but I do know that we have a special needs teacher specifically who works with them in a pull out setting. My classes are levelled and the bottom 25% don’t take classes with me, which I think most of them fall into this category.
A couple special needs students have been recently integrated into my classes. I don’t see them often, but there was one particular student who has a bunch of pencils and just plays with them all throughout class.
So, I asked the teacher about it. He told me to engage with him and to try and get him to do whole group responses. And encouraged me to push him and “not leave him alone.” And then the next week he addressed the faculty saying this same thing. I thought that was really good and pretty progressive for Korea. Except, to not expect accommodations.”
“I think students with special needs or behavioural challenges aren’t properly acknowledged. They were usually in low level English classes and not given the adequate attention to get ahead. I feel if my co-teacher facilitated more care to them they could advance, but instead she ignores their issues. I feel that there is only so much that I can do. I call on them for answers, play games, and doing more active activities. After a while the games become to rowdy so my co-teacher got upset and cancelled them. We then returned to rudimentary work.
I don’t feel that my co-teacher shamed or pity them. She just didn’t motivate them or care to teach. I heard that she is quitting so we will see if improvements come. I never interacted with parents so I cannot comment on that.
“I think it depends on the school and especially with the teachers. Like for Danseong working with one teacher, she neglects and ignores on of the special needs students. Upon asking her why she replied: ‘He’s not capable of learning English and doesn’t have the knowledge.’
I was literally SHOCKED because back home in Canada we are taught that every student is equal and should be treated the same. So, because it is her classroom, I don’t want to cause any trouble so I just let things be. Sometimes, I do try to work with the students one on one. But it’s hard enough when he has a learning disability, let alone trying to communicate with him in another language he has no idea.
But then in my second school……. I see my co-teacher treating two students with learning disabilities just the same as students, giving extra time from the teacher. For example, when students are asked to read a word, I would whisper in the student’s ear and he/she would read it out loud versus other students we would push them to figure it out themselves.
Also, for the school festivals, there is one student in a wheelchair and the school included that student in the play, even though it was only for 2 minutes. But it was nice to see the smile on that student’s face being apart of the show.
I don’t really interact with the parents as much, but I think the education system here can do so much better incorporating students with disabilities. I just think that there’s not enough funds delegated into special education.
There You Have It
A few perspectives on the current state of teaching English in Korea, and some of the realities of providing English education to students of all abilities. It should be noted to bear in mind the language barrier between the English and Korean teachers in the schools. It was difficult to communicate and find out further information within our schools directly.
If you have any other thoughts or further information, please comment below.
Thanks for reading.
You can find me, Amanda Teacher, making new friends with neighbourhood cats and dogs, getting lost in foreign countries, swimming in crystal blue waters, or sampling new coffee roasts. As a disability studies alumni, I strive for disability rights in whatever part of the world and work situation I find myself in.
Currently, happily existing in France enjoying baguettes, learning French and finding beauty in everyday things around me.
This post was written by instructor Danielle Landry.
Launching the Final Report
This past December, the Psychiatric Survivor Anti-Violence Coalition (PDAC) hosted a community event in Parkdale to release its final report. The project leads, Peggy-Gail DeHal Guraj from Parkdale Community Legal Services, Lucy Costa from the Empowerment Council and Andrea Daley from York University’s School of Social Work, were on hand to introduce the event. Together they spoke about the significance of the work undertaken by this coalition, how the group first came together following a series of assaults against residents of a Parkdale boarding home in 2011, and the subsequent community response, which aimed to ensure that incidents like these never happened again.
“Why is the media only interested when we’re dead?”
– Lucy Costa, December 10 2015 PDAC Report Launch
Author of the book The Story of Jane Doe: A Book About Rape (2004), activist, educator and litigant Jane Doe (Jane Doe vs. Toronto Police), gave a compelling talk to a room of about 50 keen listeners. She spoke openly about how at the trial to convict her rapist, the cross-examiner sought to discredit her testimony by asking about her mental health history and her interest in reading ‘feminist literature’. The audience was aghast, but not entirely surprised by the experience she recounted.
Creatively designed by Lisa Walter, PDAC’s final report is written in easy to understand non-academic language. At the launch event she spoke about how the anti-violence framework inspired her design. A timeline diagram runs along the bottom of the page, giving readers a sense of significant events that have occurred during the time this coalition has been active. The report’s text uses the metaphor of ‘clearing a path’ to illustrate how we can build on both what psychiatric survivors already collectively know about the violence that permeates their lives and the anti-violence work that has been undertaken to date. Instead of learning about structural violence anew, the coalition sought to ‘clear a path’, to make visible a road that already exists and challenge familiar roadblocks, such as “lack of committed funding, organizational policy constraints and apathy” (p.29). As stated in the report, “psychiatric survivors’ pressing needs — and indeed, their right — to safety and wellness demand that we use novel approaches to break them down.” (p.29)
“Redignified lives. Now that’s a revolution”
– Lisa Walter, December 10 2015 PDAC Report Launch
Working with the Coalition
The organizing members of PDAC share a desire and commitment to address the discrimination, exclusion and violence experienced by people with psychiatric disabilities. In 2011, the originating members reached out to other people with a vested interest in this issue, including community members, professionals, academics and members of government, asking them to bring their knowledge, experience, and resources to the table.
In 2012, I joined the coalition as a volunteer representative of the School of Disability Studies and as someone who is mad-identified. At the time I was working as a Research Assistant to Dr. Kathryn Church and looking to complete a capstone project for the certificate in Advancing the AODA through the Chang School (now known as Accessibility Practices: AODA and Beyond). I was able to put my research for my capstone to use by building a literature review on psychiatric disability and violence. I quickly discovered, as you might imagine, that a lot more has been written about the trope of mad people as violent than work investigating the many forms of violence experienced by mad people. Looking at the literature on structural violence experienced by people with psychiatric disabilities, I noted that there are many conceptual frameworks for understanding violence and disability, such as: human rights, hate crimes, social determinants of health, and more… but the literature on violence written from a psychiatric survivor perspective was harder to find. Unfortunately, community knowledge of this sort frequently goes unpublished or only appears in the ‘grey literature’, which can be harder to track down.
Many of you connected to the School of Disability Studies have likely heard me talk about the work of the coalition at some point over the past few years; I’ve spoken about it to numerous DST 501 classes, presented at CDSA on the findings of my capstone project, and participated in panel at Mad Pride with A History of Madness instructor Jenna Reid. Now years later, I’m excited to share what this coalition has produced.
Using the Anti-Violence Framework
PDAC’s final report documents the coalition’s work over the last 4 years to address the structural violence experienced by people with psychiatric disabilities. Here violence is defined as:
“actions, words, attitudes, structures, or systems that cause physical or psychological harm to a vulnerable individual, or that cause such an individual to be placed in harm’s way (adapted from Fisher, Abdi, Ludin, Smith, Williams, & Williams, 2000). ‘Structural violence’ describes social structures — economic, political, legal, religious, and cultural — that put vulnerable individuals and populations in harm’s way (adapted from Gilligan, J., 1997 and Farmer, P.E., 2004 as cited in Farmer, Nizeye, Stulac, & Keshavjee, 2006). Violence against people with psychiatric disabilities occurs both through intended and unintended acts of violence and omission (Ontario Human Rights Commission [OHRC], 2012).” (Psychiatric Disabilities Anti-Violence Coalition, 2015, p.9)
The report outlines our psychiatric survivor-led research process, the findings from our community consultations in 2014/2015, and the anti-violence framework which sets guidelines to examine, analyze and respond to violence in the community.
The anti-violence framework PDAC has developed can be taken up and applied by different organizations in their own settings. Instead of producing another set of recommendations that could be overlooked or collect dust on a shelf, we’ve developed a framework that’s more of a “how to” than a “what to do”, so service providers and other stakeholder groups have a method to conduct their own psychiatric survivor analysis. I encourage each of you to read the report and consider how it could be taken up in the groups and organizations you belong to.